El Dorado Physical Therapy

Medical Library

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Head and Neck


Neck Pain

What sort of symptoms would I experience?
What are some possible causes of my neck pain?
Can I manage my neck pain at home? At what point should I see my doctor?
What tests can I expect my doctor to run?
What are some ways that I can manage my pain at home?
How do I prevent future neck pain?

Find answers to these question by reading more...

Cervical Radiculopathy

What is cervical radiculopathy?
Causes of Cervical Radiculopathy
Symptoms of Cervical Radiculopathy
Treatments of Cervical Radiculopathy

Find out more about Cervical Radiculopathy here...


The Secret of Good Posture
"Stand up straight! Don't slouch!"
The Anatomy of Good Posture
Check Your Posture
You Can Improve or Maintain Your Posture
Good Posture For Life
Tips for Maintaining Good Posture Throughout Your Life

Learn more about having good posture by clicking here...

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Anatomy of the Shoulder

The shoulder is made up of three bones: the scapula (shoulder blade), the humerus (upper arm bone), and the clavicle (collarbone). A part of the scapula, called the glenoid, makes up the socket of the shoulder. The glenoid is very shallow and flat. The labrum is a rim of soft tissue that makes the socket more like a cup. The labrum turns the flat surface of the glenoid into a deeper socket that molds to fit the head of the humerus. The rotator cuff connects the humerus to the scapula. The rotator cuff is formed by the tendons of four muscles: the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. more...

Adhesive Capsulitis (Frozen Shoulder)

Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, is a condition characterized by stiffness and pain in your shoulder joint. In one stage of the disorder – the freezing stage – your shoulder's range of motion is notably reduced. Frozen shoulder usually affects one shoulder at a time, although some people may eventually develop it in the opposite shoulder. more...

Shoulder Dislocation

Your shoulders are your body's most mobile joints. But the ability to move in many directions can leave your shoulders prone to injury. The top of your shoulder blade (acromion) meets the end of your collarbone (clavicle) at the acromioclavicular (AC) joint. A stretch or tear of the ligaments of this joint – often due to a fall directly on the shoulder – is known as a separated shoulder. By contrast, a dislocated shoulder is a more extensive injury in which the upper arm bone (humerus) pops out of its cup-shaped socket. more...

Shoulder Tendonitis

Tendonitis is inflammation or irritation of a tendon – any one of the thick fibrous cords that attach muscles to bone. The condition, which causes pain and tenderness just outside a joint, is most common around your shoulders, elbows and knees. But tendonitis can also occur in your hips, heels and wrists. more...


Impingement syndrome is a common condition affecting the shoulder often seen in aging adults. This condition is closely related to shoulder bursitis and rotator cuff Tendinitis. These conditions may occur alone or in combination. more...

Rotator Cuff Tears

The rotator cuff is a group of strong, ropelike fibers (tendons) and muscles in the shoulder. Rotator cuff disorders occur when tissues in the shoulder get irritated or damaged. more...

Separated Shoulder / Acromioclavicular Separation

A shoulder separation occurs after a fall or a sharp blow to the top of the shoulder. This injury is usually sports related. Some separations happen in car accidents or falls. This is not the same as a shoulder dislocation, which occurs at the large joint where the arm attaches to the shoulder, although the two may appear to be the same. The shoulder separation, or acromioclavicular (AC) dislocation, is an injury to the junction between the collarbone and the shoulder. It is usually a soft-tissue or ligament injury but may include a fracture (broken bone). more...

Labral Tears

The soft labral tissue can be caught between the glenoid and the humerus. When this happens, the labrum may start to tear. If the tear gets worse, it may become a flap of tissue that can move in and out of the joint, getting caught between the head of the humerus and the glenoid. The flap can cause pain and catching when you move your shoulder. more...

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Elbow injuries are common in both adults and children. Early recognition and treatment of an elbow injury can reduce the risk of complications and later disability. Any serious injury of the elbow deserves medical attention.

Fracture / Dislocation

An elbow fracture is a break that involves 1 or more of the 3 arm bones where they work together to form the elbow joint. more...

An elbow dislocation occurs when the bones of the forearm (the radius and ulna) move out of place compared with the bone of the upper arm (the humerus). more...

Ulnar Nerve Injury

Ulnar nerve dysfunction involves impaired movement or sensation in the wrist and hand caused by damage to the ulnar nerve. more...
Biceps or Triceps Rupture

A tendon is the fibrous tissue that attaches muscle to bone in the human body. The forces applied to a tendon may be more than 5 times your body weight. In some rare instances, tendons can snap or rupture. more...

Golfer's / Racquetball Elbow (medial epicondilitis)

elbow and forearm anatomyGolfer's elbow – also known as medial epicondylitis – is pain and inflammation on the inner side of the elbow, where the tendons of the forearm muscles attach to the bony bump on the inside of the elbow (medial epicondyle). The pain may spread into your forearm and wrist. more...

Tennis Elbow (lateral epicondilitis)

"Tennis elbow" is a common term for a condition caused by overuse of arm and forearm muscles that results in elbow pain. You don't have to play tennis to get this, but the term came into use because it can be a significant problem for some tennis players. more...

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The Back

Understanding Back Pain

backBack pain is a common complaint. Four out of five people in the United States will experience low back pain at least once during their lives. It's one of the most common reasons people go to the doctor or miss work. more...

Herniated Disc

When you experience back pain that shoots down your leg, everyday activities become difficult or even intolerable. One cause of back pain is a herniated disk, sometimes called a slipped disk or a ruptured disk. more...

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of one or more areas in your spine – most often in your upper or lower back. This narrowing can put pressure on your spinal cord or on the nerves that branch out from the compressed areas.Spinal Fusion more...

back-fusionSpinal Fusion

If the cause of your back pain seems to be motion between segments of your vertebrae, spinal fusion may be a way to prevent motion and stop the pain. Spinal fusion involves permanently connecting – or "welding" – two or more vertebrae together. more...


scoliosisScoliosis runs in families, but doctors often don't know the cause. More girls than boys have severe scoliosis. Adult scoliosis may be a worsening of a condition that began in childhood, but wasn't diagnosed or treated. In other cases, scoliosis may result from a degenerative joint condition in the spine. more...

Epidural Injection

An epidural steroid injection (ESI) is a combination of a corticosteroid with a local anesthetic pain relief medicine. Corticosteroids are strong anti-inflammatory medicines used to relieve pain. The local anesthetic medicine helps give you immediate pain relief. Corticosteroid medicines take longer to have an effect. more...

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Wrist and Hand


Scaphoid Fracture

Fractures of the scaphoid occur most commonly from a fall on the outstretched hand. Usually it hurts at first, but the pain may improve quickly, over the course of days or weeks. Bruising is rare, and there is usually no visible deformity and only minimal swelling. Since there is no deformity, many people with this injury mistakenly assume that they have just sprained their wrist, leading to a delay in seeking evaluation. It is common for people who have fractured this bone to not become aware of it until months or years after the event. more...

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common cause of wrist pain. You may feel aching, burning, numbness, or tingling in your palm, wrist, thumb, or fingers. The thumb muscle can become weak, making it difficult to grasp things. Pain may extend up to your elbow.

Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when an important nerve (called the median nerve) gets compressed at the wrist because of swelling. Such swelling can occur if you: more...

Skier's Thumb

Skier's thumb now accounts for a significant number of skiing injuries. In severe cases, with complete tearing of the ligament, this injury must be surgically repaired. The ultimate stability of the ligament is important because of its contribution to the grasping function of the thumb.

People with skier's thumb may be able to return to work and even skiing in a short period with proper rehabilitation. more...

Peripheral Neuropathy

There are many different kinds of peripheral neuropathy with many different causes. The range from carpal tunnel syndrome (an injury common after chronic repetitive use of the hands and wrists, such as computer use) to Guillain-Barre syndrome (a rare, sudden paralysis). more...
De Quervain's Tenosynovitis

Pain along the back of the thumb, directly over two thumb tendons, is common in de Quervain's. The condition can occur gradually or suddenly; in either case, the pain may travel into the thumb or up the forearm. Thumb motion may be difficult and painful, particularly when pinching or grasping objects. Some people also experience swelling and pain on the side of the wrist at the base of the thumb. The pain may increase with thumb and wrist motion. Some people feel pain if direct pressure is applied to the area. more...
Colles' Fracture

Colles' fracture is a break across the end of the main bone of the forearm (the radius). A Colles' fracture results in a backward and outward position of the hand in relation to the forearm. more...

Mallet (Baseball) Finger

Commonly an athletic injury, mallet finger occurs when the outermost joint of the finger is injured. Basketball and baseball players routinely experience jammed fingers, but the injury can occur because of a crushing accident on the job or even because of a cut finger while working in the kitchen. more...

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The Hip


Hip Anatomy

The hip joint is a true ball-and-socket joint. This arrangement gives the hip a large amount of motion needed for daily activities like walking, squatting, and stair-climbing.

Understanding how the different layers of the hip are built and connected can help you understand how the hip works, how it can be injured, and how challenging recovery can be when this joint is injured. The deepest layer of the hip includes the bones and the joints. The next layer is made up of the ligaments of the joint capsule. The tendons and the muscles come next. more...

Hip Pointer

A hip pointer is a contusion to the iliac crest, the surrounding soft-tissue structures, or the greater trochanter of the femur. Typically, the injury is caused by a direct blow or fall. Hip pointer injuries occur most commonly in contact sports (eg, football, hockey), but they can also occur in non-contact sports (eg, volleyball) as a result of a fall onto the hip or side. Pain and tenderness in this region can limit an athlete's participation in sports. more...
Trochanteric bursitis

Trochanteric bursitis is characterized by painful inflammation of the bursa that is located just superficial to the greater trochanter of the femur. Patients typically complain of lateral hip pain, although the hip joint itself is not involved, because pain may radiate down the lateral aspect of the thigh. more...

Hip Fracture

The goal of treatment for hip fractures is to allow you to do, without pain, most of the things you did before your fracture. The most common and almost always the best treatment for a hip fracture is surgery. Surgery helps make sure that the bones are lined up to heal correctly. more...

Avascular Necrosis

Avascular necrosis is death of bone tissue due to a lack of blood supply. This can lead to tiny breaks in the bone and the bone's eventual collapse. Avascular necrosis most often affects the head of the thighbone (femur), causing hip pain. But it may affect other bones as well. more...

Hip Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis, sometimes called degenerative joint disease or osteoarthrosis, is the most common form of arthritis. Osteoarthritis occurs when cartilage in your joints wears down over time. more...

Hip Replacement

Hip replacement surgery, also called total hip arthroplasty, involves removing a diseased hip joint and replacing it with an artificial joint, called a prosthesis. Hip prostheses consist of a ball component, made of metal or ceramic, and a socket, which has an insert or liner made of plastic, ceramic or metal. The implants used in hip replacement are biocompatible – meaning they're designed to be accepted by your body – and they're made to resist corrosion, degradation and wear. more...

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The Leg


Quadriceps / Hamstring Muscle Strains

Leg MusclesMuscle strain or muscle pull or even a muscle tear implies damage to a muscle or its attaching tendons. You can put undue pressure on muscles during the course of normal daily activities, with sudden, quick heavy lifting, during sports, or while performing work tasks. more...

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture

A tendon is the fibrous tissue that attaches muscle to bone in the human body. The forces applied to a tendon may be more than 5 times your body weight. In some rare instances, tendons can snap or rupture. more...

Groin Strain (Adductor Strain)

Groin problems and injuries can cause pain and concern. Most minor problems or injuries will heal on their own. Home treatment is usually all that is needed to relieve symptoms and heal. more...

Stress Fractures

Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. Stress fractures are caused by the repetitive application of force, often by overuse – such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures also can arise from normal use of a bone that's been weakened by a condition such as osteoporosis. more...

Shin Splints

The term "shin splints" refers to pain along the shinbone (tibia) – the large bone in the front of your lower leg. The pain is the result of an overload on the shinbone and the connective tissues that attach your muscles to the bone. more...

Patellofemoral Syndrome

Leg Skeletal AnatomyPatellofemoral pain syndrome is a condition of pain in the front of the knee. It frequently occurs in teenagers, manual laborers, and athletes. It sometimes is caused by wearing down, roughening, or softening of the cartilage under the kneecap. more...

IT Band Syndrome

Iliotibial band syndrome is inflammation and pain on the outer side of the knee. The iliotibial band is a layer of connective tissue. It begins at a muscle near the outer side of your hip, travels down the outer side of your thigh, crosses the outer side of the knee, and attaches to the outer side of your upper shin bone (tibia). more...

Patellar Tendonitis (Jumper's Knee)

Patellar tendonitis is an overuse injury that affects the tendon connecting your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone (tibia). The patellar tendon plays a pivotal role in the way you use your legs. It helps your muscles extend your lower leg so you can kick a ball, push the pedals on your bicycle and jump up in the air. more...

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The Knee


Meniscus Tear

Knee LigamentsThere are many things to consider when deciding how to treat your torn meniscus, including the extent and location of the tear, your pain level, your age and activity level, your doctor's preference, and when the injury occurred. Your treatment choices are: more...
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Sprain

An anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, injury is a tear in one of the knee ligaments that joins the upper leg bone with the lower leg bone. The ACL keeps the knee stable. Injuries range from mild, such as a small tear, to severe, such as when the ligament tears completely or when the ligament and part of the bone separate from the rest of the bone. more...

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Tear

Posterior cruciate ligament injury happens far less often than does injury to the knee's better known counterpart, the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The posterior cruciate ligament and ACL help to hold your knee together. If either ligament is torn, you may experience pain, swelling and a feeling of instability. more...

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Tear

The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a wide, thick band of tissue that runs down the inner part of the knee from the thighbone (femur) to a point on the shinbone (tibia) about four to six inches from the knee. The MCL's main function is to prevent the leg from extending too far inward, but it also helps keep the knee stable and allows it to rotate. more...

Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) Tears

The lateral collateral ligament is a thin band of tissue running along the outside of the knee. It connects the thighbone (femur) to the fibula, which is the small bone of the lower leg that turns down the side of the knee and connects to the ankle. Like the medial collateral ligament, the lateral collateral ligament's main function is to keep the knee stable as it moves through its full arc of motion. more...

Patello-femoral Pain / Chondromalacia

The cartilage under your kneecap (patella) is a natural shock absorber. But it doesn't come with a lifetime guarantee. Overuse, injury or other factors may lead to a condition known as chondromalacia patella — a general term indicating damage to the cartilage under your kneecap. A more accurate term for chondromalacia patella is patellofemoral pain. more...

Patellar Tendonitis (Jumper's Knee)

Pain is the first symptom of patellar tendinitis. The pain usually is located in the section of your patellar tendon between your kneecap (patella) and the area where the tendon attaches to your shinbone (tibia). During physical activity, the pain may feel sharp – especially when running or jumping. After a workout or practice, the pain may persist as a dull ache. more...

Knee Osteoarthritis

Healthy joints help your body move, bend, and twist. Knees glide up and down stairs without creaking or crunching. Hips move you along on a walk without a complaint. But when osteoarthritis affects your joints, such simple, everyday movements can hurt. Taking the stairs can be painful. Walking a few steps, opening a door, and even combing your hair can be hard. more...


Osgood-Schlatter disease can cause a painful lump below the kneecap in children experiencing growth spurts during puberty. Osgood-Schlatter disease occurs most often in children who participate in sports that involve running, jumping and swift changes of direction — such as soccer, basketball, figure skating and ballet. more...

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The Ankle and Foot


Ankle Sprains / Instability

Most people have twisted an ankle at some point in their life. But if your ankle gets swollen and painful after you twist it, you have most likely sprained it. This means you have stretched and possibly torn the ligaments in your ankle. See a picture of an ankle sprain. more...

Fractures (Broken Bones)

Many people experience a broken bone (fracture) at some point in their lives. A broken ankle or broken foot is common. After all, you have 26 bones in each foot and three bones in each ankle joint. And these bones are susceptible to stress, stubbing, twisting and trauma. more...
Achilles Tendonitis and Rupture

The Achilles tendon connects the calf muscle to the heel bone. It is the biggest tendon in the human body and allows you to rise up on your toes and push off while walking or running. more...

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis (say "PLAN-ter fash-ee-EYE-tus") is the most common cause of heel pain. The plantar fascia is the flat band of tissue (ligament) that connects your heel bone to your toes. It supports the arch of your foot. If you strain your plantar fascia, it gets weak, swollen, and irritated (inflamed). Then your heel or the bottom of your foot hurts when you stand or walk. more...

Stress Fractures

Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. Stress fractures are caused by the repetitive application of force, often by overuse – such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures also can arise from normal use of a bone that's been weakened by a condition such as osteoporosis. more...

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Exercise and Health Resources

Running, walking, gardening – it's all good. Regardless of what you do, regular exercise and physical activity is the path to health and well-being. Exercise burns fat, builds muscle, lowers cholesterol, eases stress and anxiety, lets us sleep restfully. In this guide, we match resources to your exercise needs — at every fitness level.

Health and Fitness Guide

7 Most Effective Exercises

9 Least Effective Exercises

Walking for Fitness

7 Benefits of Regular Physical Activity

4 Elements of a Well Rounded Exercise Routine

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Reference Library

The following websites are provided for your information only and should not replace the advise or counsel from you doctor or physical therapist. The following links are not meant to be an exhaustive or all inclusive resource. These are websites that we have considered reliable and may help to give you general information about your injury or condition. If you have questions or concerns regarding your diagnosis, seek the advice of your medical doctor or physical therapist.

Web MD
Mayo Clinic
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Health Central
Medline Plus
Tutorial Videos
eOrthopod – Contains printable hand outs, videos and more.



The information in this medical library is intended for informational and educational purposes only and in no way should be taken to be the provision or practice of physical therapy, medical, or professional healthcare advice or services. The information should not be considered complete or exhaustive and should not be used for diagnostic or treatment purposes without first consulting with your physical therapist, occupational therapist, physician or other healthcare provider. The owners of this website accept no responsibility for the misuse of information contained within this website.


Patient Testimonial

"I just wanted to send a quick thank you to you and your team for all the great PT you have done over the years on my sciatic nerve. It hasn't bothered me at all since the birth of my son 9 months ago and I am training for marathons full time again! Just thought you should know how awesome your facility is and that I tell everyone with a complaint to go there."

– Jess F

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